These all seem to me to be major sub-components of Micro-sociology.
Breaking The Routine
Comedia dell arte
Comedia dell arte characters
Finding the Game
Fuck Your Fear
Give and Take
Mr. Nice Guy
Offer from Space
Out Of Your Head
Raising The Stakes
Revolving Door Edit
Taking Care of Yourself
Third Idea Improv
Glossary of Proven Seduction & Dating Tactics, Theories, Concepts and Common Terms
Don’t expect to completely understand this instantly, no matter how simple I’ve tried make this. This is the nuts and bolts of seduction. These methods come from sales tactics, scientific behavioral psychology, evolution theory, hypnosis, blind luck and experimentation. These are advanced subjects which have been simplified for a specific purpose. Every known method of persuasion has been studied and what governments, organized religions, advertising executives, salesmen, corporations, and cults use to influence the masses-applies here. Everything you see here All has been tested thousands of times and proven to work.
Kiss close or f**k close… depends on the context of what the person is talking about. Usually means kiss close. A pro can be making out with a girl in under 20 minutes.
e-mail close (also see: close, *close, # close)
Turning interest on, then off, then on, etc, not necessarily at regular intervals. Basically “hot & cold”, sometimes you’re good to a chick and sometimes you throw her a challenge, to keep her guessing and make you more unpredictable. A more elaborate form of 101 is “Push & Pull” method
3s / 3s rule
3 second rule. The rule that you should immediately try to meet a women within 3 seconds of seeing her (or her seeing you). 3 seconds isn’t exactly literal, but the translation is “DO NOT HESITATE”. Any hesitation will give you more time to falter and come up with fear-based excuses in your mind. It also give your target time to think negatively about you. Mystery
Average Frustrated Chump. A “nice guy”. A guy who has no pick up skills and rarely manages to close a target pick up. Also a guy who tends to supplicate in his behavior to HBs. Meaning, buying flowers for a chick when going out for coffee, putting her on a pedestal, and generally letting women walk all over him in the vein hope of somehow being seen as attractive in their eyes. A common term used for AFCs that have seen the error of their ways but not yet gained PUA skills is RACF (Recovering AFC)
Approach Invitation. Unconscious actions by an HB to get your specific attention (rather than peacocking to get ALL men’s attention) in order for you to have an opening opportunity with her. EC, hanging around you for an extended time for no reason, dropping something in front of you, asking you a question, fumbling with something in front of you, making nervous gestures, etc. By looking for AIs rather than wasting time on cold approaches, your PU game will become 3x more efficient while minimizing C&B results. If made use of in target-rich environments, quality approach opportunities can increase 10x. Observation of AIs is best done after warm-up (a few throwaway approaches)
The use of phrases or words which sound alike but differ in meaning, such as blow and below. In use: “I have it in my bag, below me, right here.” This registers on a sub-conscious level as-”I have it right here in my bag…blow me right here.” If you’re pointing at your “special place” it can install the idea in her mind, without you even actually saying it! Can you imagine…?
Alpha Male Other Guy - In reference to a situation where you are trying to close on a chick and there’s direct (in-your-face) competition from another PUA. This is different than a cockblock because the normal disarming strategies don’t work.
A physical touch to associate that touch with an emotion being felt at the exact time of the touch. Anchors can also be inserted mentally (as a forward-looking mechanism, such as causing a person to recollect a feeling when they experience something in the future) or visually (such as a Self Point) Sounds can be anchors, like when you hear a song that reminds of a good time, and you relive those memories and feelings. A general hypnosis concept
Anti Approach Invitation. Unconscious actions by an HB to do everything to avoid your specific attention. Walking away from you, avoiding EC, creating a c**kblock scenario, etc. Don’t waste your time on chicks giving anti-AI to you unless you really like a challenge or spending all your time in TA mode.
Anti-Slut Defense. The chick logic a woman (especially younger ones) will go through to relieve the guilt of having sex too quickly with a man, assuming she has enough time to “think” about the consequences - a reaction which causes them to come up with objections or reasons that they shouldn’t fuck you in order to relieve their guilt of taking *responsibility* for doing something that society would often call “slutty”. Post-sex ASD is usually boiled down to comments from her to her friends like “it just happened”. It might be possible to consider waiting for a guy to make all the moves as an ASD. This forces HIM (in her mind) to take responsibility for the fact that she slept with you. “It just happened”, “he wouldn’t give up”, etc. In reality, both people are responsible for their own actions.
Below Average Frustrated Chump
Not a derogatory term - used to describe a behavior women use when attempting to fend off would-be suitors. Usually in use in clubs, bars, and other pick up places. Sometimes just referred to as a “shield”. ?
BC / BOOT CAMP
Dance clubs and crowded bars, “meat markets”. The most likely places on the planet for AFCs to get rejected and, therefore, the best place for AFCs to build up a thick skin. THE best places to crash & burn.
Buying Temperature - the level of attraction a given girl has for you or someone else at any given time. Not necessarily 1:1 specific, based on overall state of arousal. For example increasing a girl’s buying temperature very quickly is called “spiking her buying temperature”. Also, her buying temperature can be transferred to someone else, or transferred from someone else to you.
C&F / CF / C/F
Cocky & Funny. A type of attitude that shows confidence and humor. Women respond well to this. Takes time to become congruent.
close / # close
To complete a pick up by getting a girl to commit to a “date”, giving you her phone number, or bedding her literally on the spot. Most PUAs like to differentiate between different kinds of closes (kiss close, number close, f**k close, etc.) Comes from sales terminology. i.e. “Close a deal”. (also see: *close, @close) Mystery
c**kblock / CB
When obstacles take your target away or get your target disinterested in you.
crash & burn / C&B
To attempt an approach/PU and fail miserably. A learning process. Warm-up. Don’t confuse with “CB” which is short for c**kblock.
Dead Approach Invitation. Opening on an AI that turns sour and creates an Anti-AI response from the HB(Hot Babe). Different than a crash & burn on a cold approach because it involves taking advantage of positive signals you detected from a chick. DAIs are rare if you know how to detect AIs properly
“Doggy Dinner Bowl” [Look] - The look on a chick’s face when she’s tranced out or lapping up your words with a phased out look in their eyes. In that state, they are metaphorically ready to eat out of the palm of your hand. This is when you make a bold move. Kiss close, escalate to sex…etc.
Display High Value (action/verb) or Display(s) of High(er) Value. An action or story which increases your perceived value. Can be used positively or negatively depending on your perceived value prior to the DHV and whether the chick is Lower Value (you increase hers or reduce yours, preferably increase hers) or Higher Value (you increase yours or reduce hers, preferably increase yours) These can be pre-planned routines and stories.
Display Low Value (action/verb) or Display(s) of Low(er) Value. An action or story which decreases your perceived value. Can be used positively or negatively depending on your perceived value prior to the DLV. AFCs fall into the trap of DLVs all the time and the main reason for a PUA to consciously DLV is if the chick’s perceived value (her perception of herself) is significantly lower than your perceived value and you run the risk of blowing yourself out of the set because of the disparity. HOWEVER, if her perceived value is lower due to LSE then never DLV and avoid the DLV and simply cater to her negative view of herself (otherwise you lower your value past her own perceived value and blow yourself out).
E&E / EwE
Eject & Explain / Eject-with-Explanation. Ejecting from a situation with a chick without completely burning bridges but doing it in a way that allows her the opportunity to understand and “fix” the reason(s) that caused you to eject. You eject her from your sphere/world, not the other way around.
Elicit(ing) Values. This is done to gain rapport and legitimately qualify your attraction to her other than her t and a. You make a strong connection with this.
Acronym for Find Meet Attract Close. Simplified basis of seduction method.
False Time Constraint - Used early on to open a girl and make her feel like you may leave at any second. This keeps her from thinking, “When will this guy go away?” or “Is this guy hiiting on me?” It shows you are busy and not that interested in her. ex. You: “I can only talk for a minute, but check this out…!”
Fucking Ugly Girl. A REALLY ugly chick. On the 1-10 scale, a 0.
g close / GC
Girl Close. A g close is what happens when you contact close (# or @ or both) a chick and it leads to a f close rather than a flake or LJBF. G closing also happens when you same-day f close a chick whether you got her contact info or not. If you get a chick’s contact info in order to follow up later (no same-day f close) and can walk away with the full confidence that you WILL lay her soon, that’s a g close. Anything else is mental masturbation and you will likely have a flake on your hands. G closing is always better than contact closing.
A g close, however, is not the outcome itself, it’s just a sort of required progression stage in order to achieve the end goal of a full close. Check the original post on g closing. Here’s some more info:
Essentially, what I was (and always am) trying to say is that contact closing a chick, or even extracting her, or isolating, is going to be fruitless unless your main focus is on attracting her versus prioritizing contact closing, extracting, or isolating.
I am saying: attraction before logistics.
If you don’t get a chick highly interested in you (g close) then no logistic in the world will help as a chick will simply not do a guy who she’s not interested in. So, get & build that interest first as your primary goal, and the logistics will be secondary, sometimes she’ll even figure out the logistics FOR you by suggesting contexts which seem innocent in a societal sense yet provide her with enough convenience and fluidity to allow her to relieve herself of responsibility and be able to say “it just happened”. And, remember, detecting a g close is not always easy to detect, so you must always be calibrating her interest level (pay attention for IOIs, reverse-kino, close questions/comments, negated comments coming out of the blue, etc.)
Green PUA. Replacement for the RAFC acronym. See RAFC for more explanation. Teaches a guy to make ‘i am’ rather than ‘i want’ statements about himself. f.m. breakbeat
HC / LC
High Class / Low Class. Sometimes in a different context, HC will stand for “Hardcore”. ?
Hook Point. The point at which general interest and neutral interest communications with a set turns into the set being “hooked” by your presence (the group has an active interest to want you to stay, a chick’s feeling of attraction is switched on).
Indicator of Disinterest - Used to subtly signal disinterest to a girl to show that YOU are the prize. Can be used to punish bad behavior. ex. You’re having a great conversation with her, then she brings up some guy she likes, you let her catch you looking at another girl or you can just excuse yourself and go use the bathroom. Start a new topic when you return.
Indicator of Interest - signs/signals from you or from the chick which indicates (real) sexual interest. 4 common examples-She laughs at your jokes, she asks what your name is, she comes over and asks which bedroom is yours, she asks if you have a girlfriend.
Instant Value Display/Interactive Value Demonstration - Something which cues, very quickly, a display of your value
Jealousy is a much more powerful motivator for a girl than being horny. When a girl feels jealous, she realizes just how attracted she is to you. So help her to feel jealous. The principle is that people are more willing to work for an existing investment rather than make a new one. The fear of loss is more powerful than the anticipation of gain.
Kino Anchored Motion Inducement
Keyboard Jockey. A guy who spends all his time posting about pickup, but is almost never (or literally never) out in the field. Not a person you want to take PU advice from.
Short for Kinesthetic (physical touching). Usually of a sexual nature, to get a woman in a state of approval and arousal. Touching and stroking the side of her arm, her elbows, stroking her hair, cheeks, stroking her hand or wrist, etc.
Low sex drive / high sex drive. Referring to the level of sexual drive a chick has, specifically in reference to LTRs. Depending on the context, could also mean Long Distance (as in Long Distance Relationship).
Long Distance Relationship
“Let’s Just Be Friends” - a slammer statement uttered by women which essentially closes the door on any chance of you ever sleeping with her. We’ve all been there!
Last Minute Resistance
Low Self Esteem
Long Term Relationship
The concept that what you THINK is happening is really just a fantasy about what you want rather than the reality of what has occurred, is occurring, or will occur. For example, going to a strip club, attempting to PU a stripper, getting normal “customer” attention from her, then going home empty-handed with the distorted idea that you may have a chance with her.
Multiple Long Term Relationships. An acronym and a methodology. Multiple polyamorous sexual relationships. NOT a string of ONSs or an accumulation of FBs, but rather maintaining multiple sexually-centered LTRs at the same time. It is best to inform all the women in your MLTRs that you are polyamorous (have other girlfriends).
MLTR2 / MLTR^2
An enhanced form of MLTR where the goal is to accumulate a number of LTRs with chicks that are bisexual (at least 1 who is your Primary), so that they or she help(s) with the work of finding more chicks for you (sometimes called “Tandem Hunting”)
MLTR3 / MLTR^3
A further enhancement of MLTR2/MLTR^2 where the goal is to utilize 1 or more bisexual Primary chicks in your “harem” of LTRs in order to garner sex with at least 3 women at the same time. Not necessarily through tandem hunting but of accumulating connections with multiple women who’ve been pre-screened for bisexuality and then coordinating meets with your Primary(ies) so that you end up with 3 or more girls. Could also be just simply having MLTR where you regularly fuck at least 3 chicks at the same time from the “harem” regularly.
Most Chicks Don’t Suffice. A feeling in a guy (whether AFC, PUA, doesn’t matter) that most chicks he meets don’t interest him enough, even more so than a typical looks preference. Usually MCDS is an extreme scenario as only being interested in chicks who are extremely beautiful or have an extreme personality type.
MPB / PMB
Male Pattern Blindness / Pattern Male Blindness - A condition that afflicts men in which they are in a situation where a woman is giving every signal he needs to make a successful close but he does not notice. Later on, he may finally realize his blunder but the realization comes too late.
neg / neg hit
An indicator of disinterest, also known as disqualification theory-A remark towards a girl designed to break her indifference to you by showing her that you are indifferent to her beauty (or other striking features). Not an insult, that would be bad. More like “Those are interesting nails - are they real?” or “It’s really cute how your nose wiggles when you talk - look, there it goes again! “. No more than 2 negs on an average HB (7-9/7-9), a maximum of 3 on a super HB (10/10). Negs are pretty much a necessity for 10s or strippers (whether they’re 10s or not - simply because they are in an environment which is conducive to them thinking they are 10s)
Neuro Linguistic Programming. A term coined in the 1970s, from the book Trance-Formations : Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis by Richard Bandler and John Grinder. A way to subconsciously place people in a trance for the purpose of encouraging them to do things you want.
“Not Ready For a Relationship” - a statement uttered by women (similar to LJBF) which essentially indicates that although she’s not in a current relationship, she wouldn’t want one with you let alone go out with you. Although it’s similar to LJBF, it’s possible to TA the situation quickly. It’s important to note that women don’t need a “relationship” with you to want to sleep with you. ?
Any person (or thing) which could potentially block your chances with the target girl. Mystery
A disorder commonly found in AFCs, that forces them to think that one chick is so special that they’ll do ANYTHING to get into her panties. The most common cure for this disease is to go out and fuck a Baker’s Dozen of other chicks to see that one snowflake isn’t that special
A prepared script used to start a conversation with a stranger. They get you in “under the radar” because an amateur hits on a woman right away-a pro waits 8 to 10 minutes. Openers are field-tested and proven to work predictably before being shared. The best openers can get you into groups while showing no pre-planned agenda, they can create instant interest and attraction.
One night stand
OverQualify. The point where the chick rules herself out for not feeling competent enough for any kind of relationship with you. A situation where you come across so smooth and alpha that you simply overqualify yourself to your target
“pre-AI male AI, a semi-passive action or series of actions meant to induce a chick to initiate an AI. A means to “pre-condition” a chick to initiate some form of non-verbal IOI before actually approaching her or doing an opener, usually the best IOI response to the structure being an AI. Essentially, it’s a conscious male tactic (applied as if it was unconscious) that reverses the frame of a female unconscious “PU” tactic. 3 levels of pre-approach: 1.) No AI, walk into a room full of 100 chicks, randomly approach 10, randomly get 1 or 2 interested, perhaps not your best choice of chicks overall, but still better than 0. 2.) AI observation, walk into a room, observe the 10-20 chicks giving you AI, pick the 5 that interest you, spend half the time interacting with half as many chicks who’ve shown already shown interest (2 * 2 * 2 = 8x efficiency, with increased chick quality). And, with the more positive interactions, social proof for the other 95 chicks is enhanced, providing a method of roughly 10x better results. 3.) pAImAI+AI, walk into a room of 100 chicks, vibe intent everywhere and make presence known, observe chicks selectively (like a calm hunter), and cause 30 chicks to display clear IOIs or initiate significant AIs, approach the few (2-3) that REALLY interest you, knowing they are already highly interested, and that you’ve already displayed intent (10x AI efficiency * 1.5chicks * 2x interest = 30x efficiency, with MUCH increased chick quality). Overall, the first method is still better than what most guys do, so understanding pAImAI/AI structure, even without many PU skills under one’s belt, increases opportunity at least 30x, if not 100x. Note: Some people migth refer to pAImAI as IAI (”Inducement to Approach Invitation”). Also, capitalization isn’t strict on pAImAI - it can be typed as paimai or PAIMAI, and pronounced “pie-my”
An arrangement of neuro linguistic programming (NLP) phrases and speeches used to direct the target girl and get her into a state which allows her to be hypnotically lead subconsciously into a state of sexual arousal
Enhanced social proof. A PAWN can be any woman in any situation, doesn’t have to be a friend or acquaintance of yours, and can be created on-the-fly. On-the-fly PAWNs are best for building up social proof literally out of thin air, snowballing into more PAWN opportunities and further enhancing your status in the eyes of any potential targets (even ones you have not seen yet). PAWNS can be unwitting participants or completely willing to help your game.
The act of wearing attention getting clothes and or items. Gives girls that are interested in you an excuse to talk to you. Her: “I LOVE that ring!” You: “Bulls**t, you’re attracted to me.”
A woman (LJBF material or one of your MLTRs) who you can use as social proof when out on PU session. Used to enhance your status in the eyes of any potential targets (even ones you have not seen yet). Similar to a PAWN but prepared in advance.
A guy who gets laid a lot by a particular type of girl(but not nearly as much as a PUA)
Pattern On-The-Fly. Rather than just memorizing specific patterns (which is very inflexible), it’s better to get to the point where you can take any situation and create a pattern for it on-the-fly.
Pre Lay Relaxation Mode - “Basically you just have to be very natural about everything you say and do on the way to the lay venue. There is this point in any same day lay as you go from the decision point to your place that could get awkward if she suddenly changes her mind.”
PTS / SP
Point To Self / Self Point. Pointing briefly to yourself by touching your chest or your stomach or motioning to yourself. An aspect of delivering a pattern which anchors a certain feeling, phrase, or idea to you. Also, depending on the context, could mean “Sticking Point”, relating to a mental limitation that is affecting a guy’s game.
Pick Up. The act/art of meeting and attracting women.
Pick Up Artist
Pick Up Guru
Pick Up Master
rAFC / RAFC
Recovering Average Frustrated Chump. A guy who realizes consciously that he is an AFC and is taking the steps to correct the situation. A lot of guys have chosen to deprecate this acronym in favor of GPUA (Green PUA), which is much more positive. In that regard, a guy is only RAFC for the moment he realizes his AFCness and chooses the path to PUAdom. Once choosing that path, he becomes a GPUA. Some guys make use of a small “r” in rAFC to denote that their recovery from AFCdom is still being worked on. So, if you can follow this logic, the levels of skill, in order of precedence is: WBAFC, BAFC, AFC, rAFC, RAFC, GPUA, PUA, PUM, PUG (although PUM and PUG are rarely used). Most guys in the western hemisphere are AFC.
When a PU venue turns stale (you’ve approached all the HB’s you can possibly approach in there or the opportunities have staled out) and you need to move onto a new venue.
This is when you steal her frame and act as if you’re the hot chick. Instead of her saying these things, you steal her lines before she says them. ex. You: “I don’t want to rush things.” or “I don’t do that on a first date.” or “You just want me for my body.”
The act of explicitly going out and picking up women using pick-up and seduction techniques.
Sort of like an alcoholic… except addicted to wanting to meet, pick-up, and seduce women…. do I really need to describe this?
Discreetly pointing to oneself while talking about a characteristic, feeling, or positive topic. Use of NLP visual anchoring.
Super Hot Babe
When a chick does or says something which is meant to judge the reaction or response from a male, whether the test is done consciously or unconsciously. The specific words of the response are less meaningful than the method and mode (attitude) of the response.
The concept from behavioral psychology that when you are seen as accepted by other women or a group, your social status is raised in the eyes of HBs in the near vicinity. Other forms of display can be seen as social proof (chummy with everyone at a certain place, at ease in your environment, etc.) Robert B. Cialdini,PhD.
Statement of Disinterest. e.g. “I don’t think I like you.”
Statement of Intent / Show of Interest. In initiating conversation, or perhaps during fluff-talk stage, making your intent (sexual interest) clear so as to nip LJBF in the bud early on. By declaring your intent (directly or subtly) clear early on, you avoid later resistance to taking the conversation in that direction and clear the way for an easier close. Show of Interest: A (sincere) compliment - Followed by a QUESTION intended to elicit some values (which can be fed back to her later). Statement Of Intent: To suggest doing some romantic activity together. Followed by a CHALLENGE - that is either to do a takeaway, or take the comment back with a “Just Kidding!” or whatever
Sticking Point. Could also be short for “Social Proof” or “Self Point”, depends on the context. Sticking point relates to a primary aspect of a guy’s game that he seems to be having issues with. Pinpointing such a sticking point usually helps a guy to focus on fixing that point and continuing to progress with the improvement of his overall game
Survive and Replicate - Your purpose on this earth
Turn Around. To change an LJBF situation with a woman into something sexual
The girl you are trying to seduce/close
The concept of having an overall set of resources at your disposal for accomplishing any given goal with chicks. Those resources can be mental, personally physical, material, or external cue factors (real or simulated). As a guy learns about pick-up and seduction, his overall toolbox grows. Also, as a guy improves his game, he begins to learn what aspects of his toolbox are best suited for any given scenario. Just as no particular situation needs all possible things in a guy’s toolbox to accomplish his goal, no particular situation can be overcome with just one tool from the toolbox. Collecting and perfecting tools into the toolbox is one part of the improvement process, knowing which tools to use at any given time is another.
Universal Female Excuse Archive (”I’m washing my hair that night.”, “My grandmother’s cat died.”, “I’m having family problems for the next 3 months.”, etc.)
Victim Chick. A chick which comes with a lot of emotional baggage (possibly of past abuse) who gives guys the opportunity to be a rescuer, feel like a hero, feel loved and vitally important in an intense way. Quite often, you’ll hear this type of girl say “I’ve never told anyone this…” when talking about her messed up past.
An UG (Ugly Girl) of rating 4 and under.
Way Below Average Frustrated Chump (Imagine Steve Urkel)
wing / wingman
A fellow pick up friend (possibly pick up artist) who goes along with you when you sarge or hit the clubs.
The InterNeg Negotiation Glossary
Negotiation is a process that involves two or more agents who communicate for the purpose of exchanging some goods and defining the terms of the exchange.
The purpose of negotiation is exchange of goods, but the term goods should not be viewed in purely materialistic terms; goods may be services, favours, influences, political issues, etc. The negotiation requires exchange; the parties have to "give in order to get", if one side only gives (or gets) we deal with an altruistic donation. The necessity to define the goods and the exchange terms allows to distinguish negotiation from a straight exchange as, for example, sales. Finally, negotiation are based on communication, that is exchange of information. Hence one could say that:
Negotiation is an exchange of information for the purpose of defining the terms to exchange some goods (which may be information).
A generic name for the possible choices that a negotiator may choose from. There may be alternative issues, options and packages. In decision science, alternatives are possible decisions,or elements of the set of alternatives, from which the decision maker may select.
A settlement process in dispute resolution in which the parties present their case or their final offers to a third party. The third party has a power to impose a solution (compromise).
Best alternative to the negotiated agreement.
A negotiation style named for Lemuel Boulware, a former vice president of General Electric, in which one's first offer is also one's final offer.
A concession process in multilateral negotiations that require each negotiator to offer another negotiator a concession on one issue and receive a concession on a different issue and form a different negotiator.
A need for, or desire to, immediate answers and resolutions to a particular situation.
A subgroup of two or more negotiators (parties) who join together and pool their resources to influence the outcomes of a multilateral negotiations.
An obligation or pledge to do or deliver someting.
An integrative negotiation approach in which one party receives what they want and the other party is compensated (repaid) in some other way that is relevant to this party. The compensation invoolves one or more issues that are not subject to negotiations.
A compromise or agreement is the package (combination of options) across all issues that both negotiators jointly agree upon after exchanging a sequence of offers.
A result of a majority decision made by a group which depends on the order in which the alternatives are voted upon.
A tendency to seek supporting arguments for someone's belief that may lead to ignore or discount information that is relevant but not supportive.
A tendency to seek supporting arguments for someone's belief that may lead to ignore or discount information that is relevant but not supportive.
An approach in integrative negotiations in which the costs of accepting a compromise are reduced or eliminated. One party achieves what they want and the other party's costs are reduced.
Fixed pie assumption
The belief that the set of possible packages is given and cannot be enlarged accompanied with the conviction that the parties' interestes are in full (strict) opposition. This assumption underiles distributive or competitive negotiations.
Arbitrary values such as salient numbers, figures that are considered valid or typical.
An alternative (package) that is accepted by the parties but which is dominated by some other alternative, that is there is an alternative that is better for at leastone party than the accepted agreement and not worse for any other party.
A person who intevenes between two or more parties.
A topic of discussion that is of particular interest in a negotiation. Each issue has a range of alternatives or options, one of which must ultimately be agreed upon by the negotiators in order to achieve a compromise.
Conflict that exists but is not perceived.
A kind of trade-off between two or more decision makers: giving favours or making concessions on condition of receiving other favours. Logroling is NOT an integrative strategy but trading off interests where each party concedes on the low priority issues for the purpose to realize high priority issues.
The process of making offers and counter-offers by the parties.
A combination of options (a package) that is sent by one negotiator to the other. An offer may contain one option for each issue under considerations, or some issues may not be present in the offer. The latter case is typical for sequential negotiations.
One of the alternative values that an issue can take. For example, the issue "Tolerable product failure rate" may have the options "3%", "5%" and "10%".
A particular combination of options that has been selected across several or all the negotiated issues. An example of a package is given in the table below:
The basis of a person's influence over another; the ability to influence someone else's decisions.
The ability to influence the behaviour of, and decisions made by, another person by punishing this person or threatening with punishment.
Prenegotiation is the first phase of a negotiation. It refers to the initial period (prior to exchange of any offers) when one prepares for the negotiation. Some activities involved in this phase include problem definition, preference elicitation and evaluation of alternative packages.
A "settlement" is the same as an agreement or compromise, and "post-settlement" refers to the period after the first compromise has been achieved.
The minimum (or maximum) level for an issue that a negotiator is willing to accept.
Negotiation process in which only one issue is discussed at a time. After the parties agree on the discussed issue another issue is introduced and negotiated.
A trade-off is an exchange process in which a decision maker gives up partly on some issues so as to gain on other issues.
A "utility function" is a subjective measurement that expresses the relative value (worth) of different packages (alternatives) by using a numerical scale. The numerical scale used is arbitrary, typically ranging either from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 100. The minimum number expresses the least desirable and least preferred package. The highest number represents the most desirable and preferred package.
Utility function, concave
The utility value decreases marginally, i.e., additional gains bring smaller increases in the utility.
A situation in which a negotiator makes an offer that is immediately accepted by the other parties; the immediate acceptance implies that the negotiator offered too much and perhaps could achieve a compromise that would be better for this negotiator.
Zone of possible agreements: it is the set of alternative packages (alternative decisions) which meet the reservation levels of the negotiators. Therefore, each of packages in the zone may be selected as an agreement.
Game Theory Glossary
Glossary of game theory
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 Definitions of a game
 Notational conventions
- Real numbers
- The set of players
- Strategy space
- , where
- Player i's strategy space
- is the space of all possible ways in which player i can play the game.
- A strategy for player i
is an element of .
an element of , is a tuple of strategies for all players other than i.
- Outcome space
- is in most textbooks identical to -
- , describing how much gain (money, pleasure, etc.) the players are allocated by the end of the game.
 Normal form game
A game in normal form is a function:
Given the tuple of strategies chosen by the players, one is given an allocation of payments (given as real numbers).
A further generalization can be achieved by splitting the game into a composition of two functions:
the outcome function of the game (some authors call this function "the game form"), and:
the allocation of payoffs (or preferences) to players, for each outcome of the game.
 Extensive form game
 Cooperative game
A game in which players are allowed form coalitions (and to enforce coalitionary discipline). A cooperative game is given by stating a value for every coalition:
It is always assumed that the empty coalition gains nil. Solution concepts for cooperative games usually assume that the players are forming the grand coalition N, whose value ν(N) is then divided among the players to give an allocation.
 Simple game
A Simple game is a simplified form of a cooperative game, where the possible gain is assumed to be either '0' or '1'. A simple game is couple (N, W), where W is the list of "winning" coalitions, capable of gaining the loot ('1'), and N is the set of players.
- Acceptable game
- is a game form such that for every possible preference profiles, the game has pure nash equilibria, all of which are pareto efficient.
- Allocation of goods
- is a function . The allocation is a cardinal approach for determining the good (e.g. money) the players are granted under the different outcomes of the game.
- Best reply
- the best reply to a given complement is a strategy that maximizes player i's payment. Formally, we want:
- is any subset of the set of players: .
- Condorcet winner
- Given a preference ν on the outcome space, an outcome a is a condorcet winner if all non-dummy players prefer a to all other outcomes.
- A player is a strong dictator if he can guarantee any outcome regardless of the other players. is a weak dictator if he can guarantee any outcome, but his strategies for doing so might depend on the complement strategy vector. Naturally, every strong dictator is a weak dictator. Formally:
m is a Strong dictator if:
m is a Weak dictator if:
Another way to put it is:
a weak dictator is α-effective for every possible outcome.
A strong dictator is β-effective for every possible outcome.
A game can have no more than one strong dictator. Some games have multiple weak dictators (in rock-paper-scissors both players are weak dictators but none is a strong dictator).
See Effectiveness. Antonym: dummy.
- Dominated outcome
- Given a preference ν on the outcome space, we say that an outcome a is dominated by outcome b (hence, b is the dominant strategy) if it is preferred by all players. If, in addition, some player strictly prefers b over a, then we say that a is strictly dominated. Formally:
for domination, and
for strict domination.
An outcome a is (strictly) dominated if it is (strictly) dominated by some other outcome.
An outcome a is dominated for a coalition S if all players in S prefer some other outcome to a. See also Condorcet winner.
- Dominated strategy
- we say that strategy is (strongly) dominated by strategy if for any complement strategies tuple , player i benefits by playing . Formally speaking:
A strategy σ is (strictly) dominated if it is (strictly) dominated by some other strategy.
- A player i is a dummy if he has no effect on the outcome of the game. I.e. if the outcome of the game is insensitive to player i's strategy.
Antonyms: say, veto, dictator.
- A coalition (or a single player) S is effective for a if it can force a to be the outcome of the game. S is α-effective if the members of S have strategies s.t. no matter what the complement of S does, the outcome will be a.
S is β-effective if for any strategies of the complement of S, the members of S can answer with strategies that ensure outcome a.
- Finite game
- is a game with finitely many players, each of which has a finite set of strategies.
- Grand coalition
- refers to the coalition containing all players. In cooperative games it is often assumed that the grand coalition forms and the purpose of the game is to find stable imputations.
- Mixed strategy
- for player i is a probability distribution P on . It is understood that player i chooses a strategy randomly according to P.
- Mixed Nash Equilibrium
- Same as Pure Nash Equilibrium, defined on the space of mixed strategies. Every finite game has Mixed Nash Equilibria.
- Pareto efficiency
- An outcome a of game form π is (strongly) pareto efficient if it is undominated under all preference profiles.
- Preference profile
- is a function . This is the ordinal approach at describing the outcome of the game. The preference describes how 'pleased' the players are with the possible outcomes of the game. See allocation of goods.
- Pure Nash Equilibrium
- An element of the strategy space of a game is a pure nash equilibrium point if no player i can benefit by deviating from his strategy , given that the other players are playing in . Formally:
No equilibrium point is dominated.
- A player i has a Say if he is not a Dummy, i.e. if there is some tuple of complement strategies s.t. π (σ_i) is not a constant function.
- A value of a game is a rationally expected outcome. There are more than a few definitions of value, describing different methods of obtaining a solution to the game.
- A veto denotes the ability (or right) of some player to prevent a specific alternative from being the outcome of the game. A player who has that ability is called a veto player.
- Weakly acceptable game
- is a game that has pure nash equilibria some of which are pareto efficient.
- Zero sum game
- is a game in which the allocation is constant over different outcomes. Formally:
w.l.g. we can assume that constant to be zero. In a zero sum game, one player's gain is another player's loss. Most classical board games (e.g. chess, checkers) are zero sum.